اليمن - صنعاء المدينة المجهولة ل 99 % من الناس................. Old sana'a - yemen unknown city for 99% of people

السبت، 13 ديسمبر، 2014

  • Old city of Sana'a
World Heritage Logo.svg UNESCO World Heritage site
صورة معبرة عن الموضوع صنعاء القديمة
Old city of Sana'a

StateFlag of Yemen.svg Yemen
TypeCultural, naturalistic
Standards(iv)(v)(vi)
Identification number385
Date of adoption
Year1986
(The tenth meeting of the World Heritage Committee)

The name of the site as it appears in the list of world heritage sites
** Takseem UNESCO World
Old Sana'a means walled city and had seven Gates left only for Yemen , one of the oldest continuously inhabited from the 5th century BC and existed the 103 mosques, six thousand and eleven public bath and all the buildings built before the 11th century CE [1] in the first century a.d., the temporary capital of the Kingdom of Sheba after restoring families of the tribe of Hamedan to the throne the sabaai of alhamireyen , mentioned in the texts assigned to version sanau which is derived from "manufacturer" Means a Fort in the old South Arabic [2][3]

History

Old Sana'a, and mentioned in the texts assigned to the "sanau" is derived of the word "manufacturer" manufacturer means Fort. The most important centers of Hamedan families through ancient and modern history of Yemen
Old Sana'a where Castle ghamdan Palace building built in which indication of the transmission of the capital from maarib province to control the hamdanids
Image from the top of one of the mosques in old Sana'a
The old town is only a
Small bottom Sanaa spacious stretching from Mount Let's eastward to mount system to the West, and possibly historic fortress above the foot of the mountain we do at the eastern end of the old city of Sana'a is the first core of the city, known as a "the Palace ghamdan " noteworthy sites around the capital (like we do individual shortcomings era) has been mentioned in the inscriptions found to date from the same historical period (century </B13 > first), and then evolved into the city and have a circular wall, and in the middle position of " alklis " by Islam and with the interviewee does Islam responded by working the horse's ears to Yemen with Yemen to call Prophet Muhammad years (627 a.d.), entered in the Islamic religion, a sample of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) Governor of Sana'a, the ancient city was the Governor's headquarters, built the great mosque in the year (6 e/627 m), has acquired the features of cMany have entered the number of the companions of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), and continued to maintain its relevance and become a religious center and enlightening, the increased breadth in successive Islamic age, after Sanaa old lies on the eastern side of the Valley of the alsaila as a walled city with a fortress located at the eastern end of the city on the market fall below the high , the great mosque, and the periods in which expanded the city ofSana'a reigns of State built Hatem > (Century 6 -11 pm) and Ayyubid State (century 7 e /12 pm), and renovation of its walls to Sultan taghtkin bin Ayub ", to include historically important buildings of unique architectural and aesthetic and in Ottoman I built in Eastern Riyadh mosque and bath square Ottoman in the West stretched to a alsaila and d-fence to door beads, and rivers in the Western District of the city and was built on the South end headquarters of the Governor and is still known as" the Grove of the Sultan " Prior to this position was the tombs of nobles of Hamedan.

Architectural style

Buildings in Sana'a old
Picture of old Sana'a by alsaila
The city of Sana'a ancient ancient architecture model that has rich decorations are different forms and proportions, such as blocks and episodes and walsmasr mosques, baths, markets, and schools but does not know when this architectural model affected all.

Guidance

Depending on the geographical location and the astronomer found the Yemeni southern façade architecture home (HMs Wafa as city residents) are more vulnerable to the Sun all day making it warmer in winter , bitter cold in Sanaa, while the northern façade during that engulfed in shadows so much colder in the winter. [4]
In summer and during the journey the Sun toward the North and to the South of North facade is more vulnerable to the sun while the southern mzzolh making moderate heat. Therefore concentrated on the South façade housing units devoted to toilets and kitchens. [5]
Use the steel building materials architectural nature, acquisition and storage of heat by day and slowly lost at night so they can from heating the House all night. Heavy summer monsoon rains led to the use of steel building materials resist fragmentation and degradation, dredging, as well as cover the rooftops of a alkodad [Note 1] and plaster in order to facilitate the drainage of surfaces through the gutters outside the House.

Keep the city

Sanaa has survived for centuries in the face of war and siege, and remain a teacher alive and witness the authentic Arab and Islamic civilization with a high technical level blending art and architectural beauty at the same time responsive to the needs of its material and spiritual, and until the modern age remains Sanaa maintains a comfortable rhythm in mating between architectural fabric in its traditional requirements of modern life and the ancient city of Sana'a was the continuation of an important cultural and historical values and a symbol of survival alive as the capital of modern Yemen, has issued several resolutions aimed at protecting From collapsing.
The resolution was passed in 1984 to establish a Committee for the preservation and improvement of old Sanaa city, one of the most important functions of the manifestations of degradation, landslides and restore vitality and beauty, and then evolved to the public body to maintain old Sana'a city, then to a public body to preserve historical cities
Adopted the International Organization for education, science and culture (UNESCO), the international campaign for the protection and improvement of the old city of Sana'a and preserve its unique architectural character and develop services and to highlight its cultural heritage, the UNESCO General Conference at its session in Belgrade in 1980 the decision includes an international campaign to safeguard the old city of Sanaa, and has participated in the financing of the campaign, a number of States, and the campaign objectives, the protection of the city and do in-depth studies of the city's heritage and traditions and the main buildings, the renovation of portions of the fence surrounding the city To collapse, and the restoration of dilapidated houses, the complete operations of sanitation and restoration of alsaila and others, in addition to organizing a large number of seminars presented by specialized scientific studies and research of the large number of researchers and local and international specialists, which ended with recommendations designed to support the international campaign and the successful maintenance of the city.

Mosques

One of the most important sights of the city with towering minarets and the stark white architecture, and in Sanaa city many mosques are said to number around 50 mosques, including: collector bukayriah, Peacock collector, collector groups , aortic mosque, Salah al-Din mosque, dome of the Al-Mahdi mosque. The best known of the great mosque in Sana'a and is one of the oldest mosques, is the first mosque built in Yemen and is one of the antique mosques built in the era of the Prophet.

Popular markets

Old Sanaa, Yemen (10035455156).jpg
The ancient city of Sana'a Souk of old Arab markets was held in half of Ramadan because of the flourishing trade and Commerce diversified diversified active markets for being a Center for the surrounding villages and cities of Yemen and diversified by commodity, goods and existing industries, and in the past about (45) market, but it is no longer only about 20 markets including: (grape market, market, market love salt, almatura market, market, market summary the crank (Silver), outdoing market (cloth), the seminar, Janabi, copper market market, market Kat, the stamp market (Korans), market bifocals)

Wall of old Sana'a

Bab Al Yemen, age of 1000 years
Map of Sanaa lifted the Ottoman Governor Mustafa Asim bashaonklt replica of the Ministry of public works of the Yemeni Arabic Republic on 15 may 1968
Historical phases of the fence :-can the stuccoes has parallels to the wall according to the various stages of its construction to the needs of the expanding and flourishing economic activity and population increases, as well as renovations and repairs done as a result of damage to a fence because of limitations, natural and climatic factors, in its sole discretion the destruction and tampering with the human to several factors, including those related to ignorance and backwardness, which makes some of the damaging parts of the fence, or construction site fence, including the work of wars and raids on the city and its walls during periods of political conflict Long-term control of the city of Sana'a, given the relevance in terms of its location and its historical role, and may indicated the old fence building and additions made, and repair and maintenance according to the supplied sources and historical references and surely there is construction of parts of the fence or repairs not mentioned as follows:
  • The old wall is open four known King had built the sabaai " sharm Otter " at the end (second century AD), beginning (third century a.d.).
  • Historical references suggest that the first restoration of the old wall of Sanaa and rebuild parts of it with stone and stucco is King " on Al-sulayhi ", and open it (seven doors) and it (the century 6 / 12 m).
In the era of the Ayyubid State:- when you see and hear the Sultan Ali Hatem Luis "(one of the Governors of the State of Bani Hatim) the coming of" Turan Shah Ayoubi to Sanaa in years (570 e/1174) had demolished the fence breaking trenches, the novel of " al-Hasan bin Ali al-khazraji " made in writing (cast to and from asjad me Yemen of Kings), with the aim to make the Ayyubids exposed when entering the city, can be " built Hatem" from quick raids and lightning-like gang warfare and the Sultan taghtkin El Ayoubi "rebuild The fence at the end (of the century 6 / 12 m), and expansion of Ayyubidwhere stretched westward with known Orchard Sultan was Sultantaghtkin Al-Ayoubi in fencing part introduced and connected to the old city wall, so that the liquid between Syrian and the liquid (about 30 metres) has been partially connected by bridges above the liquid, and so was the passage of people and their belongings, particularly in periods that are liquid filled with rainwater.
In the Ottoman era: the creation of single well and his enclose neighborhood, they also work with the wall well estates "and" bottom "when Jews entered the bottom within a single wall was built of mud and stonesand opened many doors, and around (1036 e /1626 m) the Ottoman father" Muhammad Pasha "restoration of old Sana'a city wall and bring it back to what it was, as the Ottomans undertook restoration of Bab Al Balqa ' and reconstructed between (1871 – 1879 a.d.) and between (1875 – 1880 ad) they also repair door of Yemen.
The length of the fence (fence, old + sur district of Bir al-azab) about (5 miles), according to estimates made of " Mohammed bin Ahmed Al-Hajri " writing total countries Yemen and tribes, and had built the fence blocks of mud and gravel , known locally as balzabor and to rounded towers fence approximately (128 Tower), a Tower located a distance (50 m).

The doors of old Sana'a

Street scene at night in old Sana'a
Landscape old Sana'a
For the historic city wall of Sanaa an impenetrable perimeter of all four directions and the four major sections of the old fence are as follows:
  1. Bab Al Yemen: a door to the South side, has been known for Yemen with other names not yet famous original label (such as for Aden), (door ghamdan), (for freedom) and the latter after the Yemeni revolution.
  2. For the people: a door to the peoples in the North neighbourhood.
  3. Door of the veils: door leads and performs to the East towards the Castle and the mountain we knew under another name it (for minors).
  4. Door of the Rosary: the door to the West in the direction of the field and a single, also called (door beads).
As other non-core doors are:
  1. Door khuzaymah: door to the South leads to the cemetery khuzaymah, he continued to fence your district well estates.
  2. Alshkadiv door: door toward the North, also known as (iron gate) and follows this section of your neighborhood fence well estates.
  3. Al Balqa ' door: door toward the South, is already part of the bottom wall of the Jews.
  4. Roman door: door toward Northwest follows your wall with a single.
  5. Bottom: the door the other door for railings on the bottom of the Jews.
As a result of acts of vandalism and destruction under the justification requirements of contemporary modern development destroyed parts of the old city of Sana'a and the wall is open under many justifications for entrance to the old city of Sana'a-remained in good condition, only segment from liquid beside the trench district of southern Yemen near the door, and another part in the North to the warm of heart burn, some have been restored and the remaining portions of the fence surrounding the old Sana'a.

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